Calendars today are typically printed on paper or installed on smart phones. These calendars include holidays observed on dates often assigned by governmental legislation. But how were holidays scheduled and taught in biblical Israel? And what might these holidays have to do with the creation narrative?

In this book, Michael LeFebvre considers the calendars of the Pentateuch with their basis in the heavenly lights and the land's agricultural cadences. He argues that dates were added to Old Testament narratives not as journalistic details but to teach sacred rhythms of labor and worship. LeFebvre then applies this insight to the creation week, finding that the days of creation also serve a liturgical purpose and not a scientific one.

The Liturgy of Creation restores emphasis on the religious function of the creation week as a guide for Sabbath worship. Scholars, students, and church members alike will appreciate LeFebvre's careful scholarship and pastoral sensibilities.

"If as modern Bible readers, we want to understand Israel of the Old Testament, we must step out of our own perceptions of time and history and enter their world of thinking. This book will enable us to do that with insights that can revolutionize our interpretation of the Sabbath and its corollary, the creation week. Open these pages and let Dr. LeFebvre become your tour guide to an Israelite view of time and calendar. He did not always persuade me, and he may not always persuade you, but we can all benefit from his insights, and the suggestions that he makes are worth pondering."

John H. Walton, Old Testament professor at Wheaton College and Graduate School, author of The Lost World of Genesis One

"The Liturgy of Creation is an important book for many reasons. LeFebvre helps us understand the Israelite calendar in relationship to the significant annual festivals that were so central to the life and theology of the Old Testament people of God. His work on the calendar itself is worth reading, but he goes further and draws crucial conclusions concerning creation in a way that affects the present debate over the relationship between science and faith. This book is essential reading for all serious students of the Old Testament."

Tremper Longman III, distinguished scholar and professor emeritus of biblical studies, Westmont College

"Dr. LeFebvre has accomplished something remarkable: he has written something that is academically responsible and creative and is at the same time readable and clear for the intelligent layperson."

From the foreword by C. John Collins, professor of Old Testament, Covenant Theological Seminary

"Given the amount of ink that's already been spilled dissecting and debating the opening two chapters of Genesis, one would think there would be nothing left to say—or at least nothing fresh to say. Enter Dr. Michael LeFebvre's The Liturgy of Creation: Understanding Calendars in Old Testament Context. Drawing on his expertise in Old Testament law, Dr. LeFebvre offers us a winsome and, in many ways, compelling defense of reading the creation week of Genesis 1:1–2:3 as a calendar narrative. Here is something not only scholarly and substantive but insightful and original. Not everyone will agree with all of his conclusions. But surely everyone will be benefited by a close reading of this important book. I highly recommend it!"

Todd Wilson, president, The Center for Pastor Theologians

"This is the work on Genesis 1 that I have waited for. Dr. LeFebvre offers a compelling understanding of the creation account by rooting it in the concerns of law, specifically the calendars that set the cadence of life for God's people. No one will be able to dismiss this work as mere accommodation, but it affirms students and working scientists to embrace without fear what they read in the book of nature."

W. Scott McCullough, associate professor of physics and mathematics, Indiana Wesleyan University

"Michael LeFebvre has given us a significant contribution to understanding the early chapters of Genesis in a way that is faithful to the Bible and avoids the pitfalls of anachronistic readings of the text. His hermeneutical insights are tremendously helpful for understanding the concepts of time, chronology, calendar, and worship in the Bible and how these concepts are often confused when read through modern eyes. With the sharp mind of a theologian and the humble heart of a pastor, LeFebvre makes a compelling and imminently readable case for understanding the creation narrative as calendar text. In doing so, he calls us to the true priorities of the creation account."

Richard Holdeman, senior pastor of Bloomington Reformed Presbyterian Church, senior lecturer in biology, Indiana University


Introduction: Dates, Stories, and Calendars

Part I: Israel's Calendars
1. Calendars in the Sky
2. Cycles of Sevens
3. The Festivals of Israel
Chart: Israel's Calendar of Holy Days

Part II: Festivals and Their Stories
4. The Festival Stories of Israel
Chart: Dates in the Pentateuch
5. Dates for Remembering
6. Dates Assigned by Law

Part III: The Creation Week
7. The Creation Week as Calendar Narrative
8. The Plot of the Creation Week
9. Ordered for Fruitfulness (Days 1–3)
10. Populated for Blessing (Days 4–6)
11. Crowned with Communion (Day 7)
12. A Calendar for Sabbath, Not Science
Subject Index
Scripture Index


Michael LeFebvre (PhD, Aberdeen) is pastor of Christ Church Reformed Presbyterian in Brownsburg, Indiana; adjunct professor of Old Testament at Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary; and fellow of the Center for Pastor Theologians. His books include Collections, Codes, and Torah; Singing the Songs of Jesus; and Our Triune God (coauthored with Phil Ryken). He is also a contributor to the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law.

BY Michael LeFebvre

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